Industrial management Institutes Brief History In the aftermath of the unprecedented recession during the 1330s and the corresponding economic crisis, an organization titled "Iran Industries Consulting Center" was founded. The studies carri¬¬¬ed out both during and after the crisis indicated that businesses - regardless of their proprietors' personal creativity, originality, and risk-taking qualities – could not achieve sustainable growth simply by following the then popular traditional approaches. Thus, the idea of launching an organization aimed at training managers and equipping them with modern managerial skills took shape. The foundation stone of IMI was first laid in the above center in early 1960s, in an effort to help develop the industrial growth of the country. Feeling the need for professional native personnel, the foreign advisors working with the organization at the time, recommended the recruitment of an independent Iranian workforce. In the years to come, the need for an independent private organization was recognized more and more and this center set up its operation under the title "Industrial Management Institute", having reformed both its structure and goals. The board of directors included representatives from the Department of Budgeting and planning, the Ministry of Industry, and the Ministry of Commerce. Later, the laboratories affiliated with the center were converted into the present organization for standard and national research. In its first years of operation, IMI benefited from foreign consultants in general and "UNIDO" in particular. At the time, IMI was successful in providing management services and introducing new technologies as well. One of the main challenges IMI was faced with during its early years of operation was to resolve the conflict between "guidance counseling" and "professional services". Shortly afterwards, IMI realized that providing free services did underestimate the organization's role and importance, thereby beginning to charge the clients for the given services. In this period, IMI went on to improve and expand its services by utilizing top-notch international experts like Russel Ackoff and changed the organization structure from task-based to matrix, creating a new payment system in order to recruit additional staff. In the post revolution days and during the eight-year war between Iran and Iraq, IMI managed to offer its services as the foremost self-sponsored management institute despite the numerous problems caused by the critical conditions of the country. With the demise of the war, IMI set out to attract a fresh workforce and expanded the network of its consultant, instructors, and researches –both Iranian and otherwise, to achieve its ambitious goals.